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Down here the full database for teaching and learning types ans methods as well as assessment methods is shown. You can filter by clicking the mangifier glass icon and enter a filter string in every column. The individual whole information about the types and methods you can reach by the highlighted name in the first column of the table.

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Pagename of type or methodeshort descriptionis applicaple or could be used forbe aware of (challenges)to be complemented bybest practice examples
type-method_009Brainstorming/brainwritingA group creativity technique, method that can often be used to generate and collect new ideas, prior knowledge and associations on a specific topicIs very suitable for introducing a topicBrainwriting can also be used onlineImplementing the outcome into student projects and group assignmentsbp_18_method_brainstorming_brainwriting.pdf
type-method_013Case study- A case study presents the learner with a "case" that describes a problematic situation (usually fictitious or historical)
- The task then is to work out a solution.
- It is important that the learners independently work out a solution to the problem on the basis of case material
Preparation for solving problems or studies in practice- Solving real problems occurring in practice
- Accessibility of information based on concrete case studies
- Presentation in a seminar
- Oral and written reports from students about the solved case studies
bp_24_method_case_study_1.pdf, bp_25_method_case_study_2.pdf
type-method_038Case study- Solving a described problematic situation ("the case")
- Grading of the students' results of the teaching and learning method case study
Well-specified competitive projects with a clear and realistic grading scheme- It requires knowledge of the issue, use of relevant methodology and processing of the results of the solved problem
- the check for 100% feasibility of 20+ shifts per team could become very time consuming
- Written report and presentation in a seminar
- Previous teaching of the theoretical background
type-method_032Closed book exam/written exam (on campus)Exam that is taken without additional resources or without the use of your textbook- Suitable for verifying basic knowledge
- Querying knowledge and reproducing what has been learned
- Testing the ability to work on known tasks and to apply them to similar cases
- Give the student enough time to take the test
- You can combine multiple choice tests, questions to develop and problem solving
- Preparation must be very thorough, because no adjustments are possible during the test, e.g. in case of ambiguous questions
- Avoid question types that risk to animate the students to prepare for the exam mainly on the level of reproducing what they have learned by heart
- The exam atmosphere can be very stressful for the students
- Other types of individual and group evaluation activities
- Tests on practical skills
bp_48_assessment_method_closed_book_exam_1.pdf, bp_49_assessment_method_closed_book_exam_2.pdf
type-method_034CourseworkWork that is assigned or performed as part of a course of studyEvaluation of small assignments carried out during the courseProvide a template to encourage student work and evaluationOther types of individual and group evaluation activitiesbp_52_assessment_method_coursework.pdf
type-method_025Desktop studiesStudents use freely available online software/platforms when solving problem tasks and obtain freely available information needed to solve the given problem- Suitable for solving semester papers and comparative analyses
- Suitable as a basis for preparing presentation
Acquisition of students' knowledge in the field of orientation in scientific databasesPresentation of results in classbp_41_method_desktop_studies.pdf
type-method_010DiscussionDevelopment of a theme in an informal exchange of ideas, opinions and information, carried out by the group of students led by the teacher or another student who acts as a guide and questioner (the director)- Useful for subjects/problems requiring the formation of one's own opinions on the given problem and critical thinking
- Collaborative small problem solving and exchange of ideas
- Learning to discuss based on ethical standards
- Implement strategies to promote the involvement of all the students in the activity
- Avoid conflicts and endless speeches
- Encourage students to bring to a conclusion
Personal self-reflection about the topic and the activitybp_19_method_discussion.pdf
type-method_012Experiment- A scientific method to discover new facts, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate an already known fact
- It relies on repeatable hands-on tests or investigations that are meant to demonstrate a cause-effect relationship, or further analysing the effect of different variables in the problem at hand
- Concepts where simple experiments convey a lot of information while engaging the students in small, hands-on challenges
- Creative thinking, developing practical knowledge
- Resource intensive (local, installations, fungible material, personnel, etc. )
- Safety critical issues during experiments
- Learning of theoretical concepts before, during, or after the experiments
- Report writing individually or in groups
type-method_018Flipped classroomMethod in which the learning content is read by the learners before the lecture, and the physical meeting in the classroom is used for activities that more actively engage the students such as applying the theory in practical cases or teaching and discussing more advanced concepts- Courses with a certain balance between theory and practice, or basic and advanced concepts that benefit from more thorough in-class debates
- Courses that don't change much through the years
- Students perception is that they learn less (research has demonstrated that they learn more)
- Risk of not updating video or reading material
- Big time investment in the first implementation of a flipped classroom from a conventional course
- It relies on student independence, trusting they will prepare the lecture in advance
- Active participation of rather few students leading the activity
- Formative feedback activities (in-class or asynchronous)
- Student self- reflection on the activity
type-method_030Group workWorking in small groups for interactive learning experience (actually a social form and not a method) and learning teamwork- Useful for solving more demanding problems requiring knowledge from various fields
- Work on complex tasks requiring a lot of input information and processing of the resulting report
- Availability of input information
- Balanced team composition
- Check the progress of work periodically
- It must be part of the final assessment
- Group presentation in class
- Final report of the solved issue
type-method_014In-class "Questions & Answers" sessions- Open lecture or seminar where students can freely ask questions to teachers, instructors, assistants, etc.
- The teacher can ask for students to send questions beforehand, take them during the session, or have a set of questions prepared in case students don't have specific ones
- For anchoring unclear concepts based on student feedback
- For increasing students self-confidence in the alignment between course and teacher expectations and student performance
- To review course global concepts
- To openly share common students' doubts
- Students do not always know what is most important, so a certain steering is needed from the educators
- Specific very active students might steer the whole session
- Invest enough time and schedule it in the teaching calendar
- Try to implement it before intermediate and final exams
- Can be used as an add on to any set of learning activities
- Summaries produced by students as a result of the Questions & Answers sessions
type-method_001In-class teaching/lecturesWell-structured lectures executed in the classroom for introduction, presentation and discussion of key theoretical aspects, standards, operational rules, and similar for medium size and big size groups- Introduction of key/core concepts of subject under study
- Reference problems/exercises can be posed
- Important for theoretical explanation of the issue, very useful for subjects common to several study programs
- Use of multi-media technology for combination of online and face-to-face teaching
- Do not overload the students with too much information
- Check students key concept comprehension
- Try not to introduce several new concepts in the same class
- Motivation of students
- Problem/tasks solving in groups
- Conferences/seminars/visits
- In class discussions and student-led learning activities
bp_1_type_in-class_teaching_or_lectures_1.pdf, bp_2_type_in-class_teaching_or_lectures_2.pdf, bp_3_type_in-class_teaching_or_lectures_3.pdf
type-method_005Invitation of guest lecturers/expertsDelivering the teaching content by university non-academic experts and professionals, coupling the course content to stakeholders and applications- Lectures or courses with evident work-life applications
- Motivational lectures for more basic theoretical courses where students need to see the long term benefit of that course or area
- Bring real professional expertise to the class
- Familiarize the students with non-academic profiles
- Contact point for future internships or job positions for the students
- Not academic experts, so it's use should be limited for ensuring a consistent curriculum and learning goals completion
- The lectures orients more towards discussion
- Proper speaker profile and topic selection. It has to be aligned with the course content. Similar topics should not be tackled
- Need of lecturers and experts with willingness to share their full experience in an open mind approach
- Used as a complement for any type of cours
- Previous class work to introduce the students with the topic of the talk
bp_10_type_invitation_of_guest_lecturers_experts_1.pdf, bp_11_type_invitation_of_guest_lecturers_experts_2.pdf
type-method_026Involvement of students in research activities/eventsStudent participation and attendance in regular scientific processes (e. g. conferences, events, scientific project work)- Providing innovation and trends perspectives at both course and program level
- Anchoring course contents related to a specific research area
- Method suitable more for students in MSc studies and for students in doctoral studies
- Cannot always be a graded activity
- students might have activity overload if they are not well scheduled
- Networking and liaison with stakeholders
- can be used as an add on to any set of learning activities or study programs
type-method_016Laboratory exercisePractical exercises in individual (or in small groups) done in a laboratory to deepen and to apply theoretical aspects- Gaining first practical experience related to the theory in an simplified, academic context
- Practical verification/testing of theoretical knowledge
- Preparation is very time-consuming
- In most cases, simplifications have to be made to the laboratory setup or test implementation so that implementation in the laboratory is possible
- Very support-intensive
- Previous work of the student about the topic covered in the lab
- Generally, a high initial budget is required to acquire the resources for the laboratory
- Practice report, practical test
- Teaching theory and showing and classifying it in larger contexts
- Transfer methods to other framework conditions
bp_27_method_laboratory_exercise_1.pdf, bp_28_method_laboratory_exercise_2.pdf
type-method_015Listening taskGuided note-taking, composing questions of activity that the learner does while listeningCompletion of a picture about a special topic (e.g. different type of railway signalling in some countries around the world)Duration time of this method can cause disinterest among studentsIntroducing students with a different approachbp_26_method_listening_task.pdf
type-method_027Literature reviewResearch and analysis of various sources of literature on a topicGenerating new insights about how a particular topic is currently and has been previously understood by the existing literature- Students lacking interest in reading through articles and journals
- Students losing focus
- Making students understand the difference between summarizing and synthesizing
- Academic writing, constructive criticism, gap analysis
- Guest lectures from scholars conducting research
type-method_004Online teaching and learning- Type where teaching process is delivered remotely through online platforms
- Level of implementation is very different (starting from sharing learning material (produced in advance) via a static online platform up to interactive and synchronic virtual classrooms delivery)
- Useful for lectures and seminars for subjects that do not require practical application, e.g. in laboratories, also useful for individual consultations
- Delivering live lectures or using pre-recorded videos for various purposes
- Using new modern dynamic platforms for online teaching
- Students and teachers are not all equipped with gadgets that allow them to learn and teach online
- Internet problems and poor-quality video and audio
- Not applicable for all teaching content
- Pre-recorded sessions
- Active student teacher interaction
bp_8_type_online_teaching_and_learning_1.pdf, bp_9_type_online_teaching_and_learning_2.pdf
type-method_033Open book exam or homework (online or offline)- Exam or homework where it is allowed to use all material
- Can be grading exercises that the students solve in small groups every 2-3 weeks for a module in which basic engineering knowledge is taught
- Can be an open book exam in which students respond to exam questions available via the internet in an electronic portal.
- It will require you really understand material and be able to apply or analyze information and content rather than just remember it
- Modules, in which basic engineering knowledge is taught, where solving well-specified exercises is considered valuable for the subject, but accessing a field solely by self-studies would be considered being too complex (e.g. calculus)
- If the homework is to be handed in in groups, then there could be the potential risk that one student per group does not contribute actively to the solutions
- Ensure that group work is never a possibility for any student to pass a module without any individual effort, just because his/her group members were sufficiently skilled and engaged to compensate the other's lack of effort
- Pure basic engineering exercises could be considered to be annoying by the students, if no true relation to the railway system would be revealed
- Understanding and applicability of the material is required rather than just remembering it
- Previous teaching of both, the theoretical background and some (similar) exercises in class
- Self-reflection
bp_50_assessment_method_open_book_exam_or_homework_1.pdf, bp_51_assessment_method_open_book_exam_or_homework_2.pdf
type-method_037Oral exam- Assessment practice where the students demonstrates their knowledge orally. It typically involves the evaluator posing questions to the evaluated student
- Interactive interview complemented with presentation of practices developed by single students or groups of them as a powerful system to check the knowledge acquisition level
- It is important to find out how the student understood the problem and how he can implement it in practice
- Smaller student groups
- Flexible evaluation dates
- Online evaluation
- Assessment of the knowledge about single topics as well as the capability of transversal logic connections across topics, able to represent the complexity and the systemic vision that student should have acquired and consolidated
- Possibility to uncover what has been learned purely by heart
- There is the possibility of helping students in a nervous situation by asking them carefully step by step to formulate their existing knowledge or application competence
- Fine-tune grading is challenging
- Failing a student in person can be challenging
- Need of teachers with clear and complete awareness of all subjects taught by her/him-self and co-teachers, if any
- Attitude of teachers to accompany students in transversal logical connections
- Students fear of oral exam
- Assessment takes a lot of time for large groups
- Additional summative assessment tasks (exercise solving, assignments, reports...) for fine-tune grading
- Preliminary clarification to students of the exam organization and capabilities expectations
bp_57_assessment_method_oral_exam_1.pdf, bp_58_assessment_method_oral_exam_2.pdf, bp_59_assessment_method_oral_exam_3.pdf
type-method_019Paper discussionLearners review a scientific paper about a recent research topic at home before all together discuss the key aspects learned in class- Useful for problems requiring critical analysis
- Useful for learning highly topical concepts presented in depth and in a rigorous manner
- Topic selection criteria
- Invest enough time and schedule presentations on the teaching calendar, including Questions & Answers
Development of literature reviewbp_31_method_paper_discussion.pdf
type-method_039Performance in laboratoryPractical solving of a task in a laboratory- Testing whether theoretical knowledge and connections between different disciplines can be applied in practice
- Testing the ability of discovering new and unknown areas
- Personal reflection on the work developed and the self-perception of the acquired knowledge
- Preparation must be very careful, because laboratory work can fail (through no fault of the students), flexibility in evaluation of the student performance is needed
- Depending on the subject:
- Modality 1. Voluntary activities that can be considered for the final evaluation
- Modality 2. Mandatory activities for the final evaluation
Methods to test theoretical knowledge and skillsbp_61_assessment_method_performance_in_laboratory_1.pdf, bp_62_assessment_method_performance_in_laboratory_2.pdf
type-method_028Poster- Large-format print that serves to convey information to the public about results
- Usually supported with an in-person short pitch for driving the readers to the highlights
- Serves as a way of consolidating the student learning into a compact visual format, promoting reflection
- Reporting for formative or summative assessment in a project task, lab assignments, group work, and similar
- Courses where there is a need to further settle down the key concepts
- Time consuming
- Needs a short training on different types of communications for understanding what the objective of a poster is
- Requires a certain level of digital skills
- Oral presentation of the poster content
- Use as reporting technique for different learning activities
type-method_006Practical learning/internship- Type of learning provided outside a university in a practical and real-live working context
- Duration can be a few weeks or a whole semester
- Can be an integrated part of the curriculum
- Gaining complex practical experience in the field and applying theoretical knowledge in practice
- Very useful for students for comparison of knowledge acquired at school with practical use, or problems in practice.
- Increase of students' knowledge in practical term
- In case of preparation of final thesis it enables the student to benefit from the expertise of colleagues and the experience of fieldwork.
- Implement practical learning individually (internships, experience in companies)
- Proper selection of the companies/entities and balanced students' workload
- Number of available places at companies
- Methodological and scientific backgrounds and procedures could be given little attention in practice
- Documentation of the procedure and the learning progress is necessary
- In person discussions with tutors and one2one consultations
- Preliminary knowledge
- Tutorials/seminars that methodically reflect what has been learned in practice
bp_12_type_practical_learning_internship_1.pdf, bp_13_type_practical_learning_internship_2.pdf, bp_14_type_practical_learning_internship_3.pdf
type-method_020PresentationPresentation of some outcome in class- Useful for gaining practical presentation experience
- A strategy for implementing peer learning in the class
- Preparation requires detailed knowledge of the issue
- Presentation of teamwork by the team leader, the leader's responsibility for solving the given teaching issue
Development of written assignment or reportbp_32_method_presentation_1.pdf, bp_33_method_presentation_2.pdf
type-method_035Presentation- A talk to a group giving information about something
- Evaluation of knowledge on oral form where the student declares the results of his work or e.g. the results of continuos research
- It is required to present the methodological procedure and results
- Applying the theoretical knowledge in a well-structured, practical surrounding
- Specific time slot for each presentation and Questions & Answers
- Free delivery of the presentation without reading the text
- Preparation is very time-consuming
- Peer evaluation
- Other types of individual and group Evaluation activities
bp_53_assessment_method_presentation_1.pdf, bp_54_assessment_method_presentation_2.pdf
type-method_031Problem solvingStructured problem-solving methodology that is mainly used to identify, correct, and eliminate recurring problems- Implementation of theoretical methods for solving problems from railway practice
- Verification of acquired knowledge on solving practical problems from the practice of railway companies
Support intensive- Explain the teaching theory on a practical issue
- Transfer methods to practical application
type-method_036Project related/problem solving tasksProcess of defining a problem, determining its cause, and implementing a solutionSuitable for project-oriented subjectsBalanced weight in the final assessment- Presentation in class
- Other types of individual and group evaluation activities
- Basic courses about design and strategies to solve technical problems
bp_55_assessment_method_project_related_problem_solving_tasks_1.pdf, bp_56_assessment_method_project_related_problem_solving_tasks_2.pdf
type-method_021Project work- Learning is organised around complex tasks or projects arising from a technical or societal challenge
- Students individually or in groups self-direct towards a specific objective, including several phases from planing, implementation, result reporting, etc.
- Consolidation of several disciplines in a single open-ended task. Application of theoretical knowledge on vehicle or transport subsystems in a realistic scenario
- It is a method of democratic and action-oriented learning
- Learners always are active and learn with the greatest possible personal responsibility
- Promote interaction between students and collaborative learning
- To participate in the solution of problems from practice (in a company or research tasks at the university)
- Needs a certain maturity and theoretical background for the students to be able to move forward. Different types of students can be more or less proactive, so active management of the whole process from the teacher is needed
- Balanced team composition
- Check the progress of work periodically. It must be part of the final assessment
- Project management theory, mentoring
- Presentation of project results in a seminar
- Scheduled support sessions, in-class or group-wise
- Lecture material
- Tutorial practices on specific topics of the project work
type-method_029Self reflectionLearning activity where one takes time to reflect, think about or evaluate ones own learning process and level in relation to the intended learning outcomes- Usable in any learning context, but shines specially courses that teach more subjective concepts such as practical skills, leadership and project management, or key competencies for sustainability
- Usable as learning activity ans also as a way for the course responsible to assess the learning of the course objectives
- Needs a good theoretical basis of what is a good critical reflection, and how to move forward afterwards - more adequate for mature students (master and PhD level)
- Can be challenging to evaluate for the teachers as it involves subjective assessments from the student in the context of their own learning experience
Activities that train the learning objectives before the reflectionbp_45_method_self-reflection.pdf
type-method_040Self-assessment mock-up exams- Exams similar to the actual final examination that are available for the students to solve on their own, sometimes including a valid solution; or are solved in a scheduled activity
- The objective is that students can self-assess and act accordingly on their learning process
- It is a purely formative assessment, cannot be used directly as summative assessment
- Preparation before final written examination
- Feedback without teacher time dedication (when pre-solved)
- Conveying expectations in the examination to the students
Limits the possibilities for constructing an independent examSummative assessmentbp_63_assessment_method_self-assessment_1.pdf, bp_64_assessment_method_self-assessment_2.pdf
type-method_007Self-learningType of learning where students learn on their own without influence by teachers during that time- Self-studies to enhance learning practice and experience
- Preparing for exams
- Solving problems in project related tasks
- Without verification of study materials, there is no way of knowing that what is being learned is accurate.
- Solving problems whilst working on projects in a team.
- Exquisite complementary materials selection (bibliography, additional resources, videos, podcasts, papers, etc.) to be provided to the students.
- Adequate evaluation methods
- Group activity
- Becoming a life long learner
bp_15_type_self-learning_1.pdf, bp_16_type_self-learning_2.pdf
type-method_002Seminars- Type of small and medium sized group teaching (approx. 5 - 30 persons) with huge share of interaction between the students
- Mostly in the classroom in an in-class teaching situation, but not necessarily
- No front-of-class teaching instead of that tutor guide on the side or meddler in the middle, sometimes student-led
- Research seminars: Can as well be a format to show students ongoing research activities of internal or external researchers or to let the students present research publications to each other
- Important for discussion and other teaching methods, interaction (face-to face) between teacher and students is very important
- Individual and Group presentations followed by Questions & Answers sessions
- Encouraging research within a particular subject and reaching conclusions
- Research seminars: Showing the students the link between the present state of the technology and the future developments that will be possibly reality during their professional career
- The use of modern teaching methods, e.g. learning through experience
- Assessment of individual contribution.
- Research seminars: availability of researchers
Development of individual and group reportbp_4_type_seminars_1.pdf, bp_5_type_seminars_2.pdf
type-method_022Simulation- Recreation of real scenarios for training purposes
- Use of modern simulators for training and planning of processes, e.g. for costs or safety related aspects
- Train driving simulation
- Timetable design
Use of simulators available as freeware or by affordable educational license costs- Simulation reports from student about the simulation case
- Preliminary preparation of student to maximize the effectiveness of the simulated operation
bp_35_method_simulation_1.pdf, bp_36_method_simulation_2.pdf
type-method_023Small practice and calculation exercisesTask specific exercises with real examples executed in classroom to apply theoretical concepts- Suitable for solving tasks/problems where it is important to follow the methodology and calculate a specific result
- e.g. for obtaining qualitative and quantitative indicators in railway traffic
- Familiarization of students with stepwise procedures for design and assessment of railway systems or sub-systems
- In professional subjects, focus the solution on practical problems
- Need of teachers with strong attitude to accompany students in the stepwise practical solution of problems
- Implementation of calculation method in another field
- Oral and written reports from students about the solved tasks
bp_38_method_small_practice_calculation_exercises_1.pdf, bp_39_method_small_practice_calculation_exercises_2.pdf
type-method_024Student feedback/reviewOpen feedback to a person or group about how their behaviour is perceived and interpreted by othersCreates more openness and clarity in relationships and can thus help to improve communication in everyday learning and work- Feedback may not be constructive, review may not be technically correct.
- Not many students responded to feedback survey
Examples from previous surveys and feedback collectedbp_40_method_student_feedback_review.pdf
type-method_008SupervisionMaking it possible for students to learn under close supervision by tutor/supervisorTypical for developing a student project and dissertationsStudents lacking research-related and academic writing skillsStudent presentations in class and seminarsbp_17_type_supervision.pdf
type-method_011Technical visits/field trips- Technical visit of a real factory, company, on-site infrastructure (outside classroom and university) with introduction, explanation of what is seen
- Excursion where staff applies into practice methods and concepts that were previously taught at university
- Looking back, many students describe technical visits as a highlight of their studies
- Useful for a better understanding of the issue, as well as for gaining new knowledge directly from practice
- Visualize practical implementation of topics covered in class
- Complement class contents with in-depth knowledge of real systems
- Well-suited possible targets could be signal boxes, control centres, maintenance work shops, marshalling yards etc
- Complement class content, neither repeat excessively nor be to much far away of topics covered in class
- Be aware of safety measures
- Requires a direct contact person who is open to welcome a group of students for between one hour and half a day
- The number of participants could risk to be limited due to the available space at the facilities (forming separate groups could resolve this)
- Financial coverage of expenses to prevent any discriminatory barrier to the participation
- Preliminary preparation of student to maximize the effectiveness of the visits
- Oral and written reports from students about the visits on identified subjects
- A discussion/reflection of the visit in class.
bp_20_method_technical_visits_field_trips_1.pdf, bp_21_method_technical_visits_field_trips_2.pdf, bp_22_method_technical_visits_field_trips_3.pdf
type-method_003Tutorials/practices- Teaching sessions targeted to the application of the theoretical concepts presented in the lectures
- Type suited to stabilize and consolidate theoretical aspects and to transfer from knowing to skill/applications
- These could include time to work individually or in student groups to solve the exercises before receiving a solution proposal from the educator
- Courses with a certain component of practical applications/problem solving/calculations. Flipped-classroom settings (see learning methods)
- Useful for giving focus to most important topics within the subject
- Activating the student's awareness of the potential applications of the studied theories and the related problem solving methods
- Too simple exercises that don't encourage deep learning of key concepts
- Students coming with similar questions
- Theoretical lectures
- Labs or models that demonstrate the concepts
- Self-learning activities
bp_6_type_tutorials_practices_1.pdf, bp_7_type_tutorials_practices_2.pdf
type-method_017Use of multimedia materialUsing didactic material which combines different media types as there are videos, audio, animations, graphics, text- Addition to the lecture
- Illustration of practical examples
- Appropriate suitable for online teaching
- Useful for enlivening the lecture/seminar, the examples are suitable for a better understanding of the issue
- To create/increase student engagement
- Balanced quantity in comparison with the classical explanation of theory
- Use of new multimedia technologies and their combinations with teaching strategies
A discussion after the activity deliverybp_29_method_use_of_multimedia_material.pdf
type-method_041Work on individual assignmentsSolving individual tasks for each student, including a description of the problem, methodology and results of the solutionIt requires knowledge of the methodology and its implementationVerification of the ability to solve problems in the home officeIndividual evaluation activitiesbp_65_assessment_method_work_on_individual_assignments.pdf
astonrail_handbook/hei_teachers/full_tm_search.txt · Last modified: 2023/05/15 18:30 by martin_l